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Machine learning coarse grained models for water

Henry Chan, Mathew J. Cherukara, Badri Narayanan, Troy D. Loeffler, Chris Benmore, Stephen K. Gray, Subramanian K. R. S. Sankaranarayanan

An accurate and computationally efficient molecular level description of mesoscopic behavior of ice-water systems remains a major challenge. Here, we introduce a set of machine-learned coarse-grained (CG) models (ML-BOP, ML-BOPdih, and ML-mW) that accurately describe the structure and thermodynamic anomalies of both water and ice at mesoscopic scales, all at two orders of magnitude cheaper computational cost than existing atomistic models. In a significant departure from conventional force-field fitting, we use a multilevel evolutionary strategy that trains CG models against not just energetics from first-principles and experiments but also temperature-dependent properties inferred from on-the-fly molecular dynamics (~ 10’s of milliseconds of overall trajectories). Our ML BOP models predict both the correct experimental melting point of ice and the temperature of maximum density of liquid water that remained elusive to-date. Our ML workflow navigates efficiently through the high-dimensional parameter space to even improve upon existing high-quality CG models (e.g. mW model).

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