International migration management in the age of artificial intelligence
Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to revolutionise the way states and international organisations seek to manage international migration. AI is gradually going to be used to perform tasks, including identity checks, border security and control, and analysis of data about visa and asylum applicants. To an extent, this is already a reality in some countries such as Canada, which uses algorithmic decision-making in immigration and asylum determination, and Germany, which has piloted projects using technologies such as face and dialect recognition for decision-making in asylum determination processes. The article’s central hypothesis is that AI technology can affect international migration management in three different dimensions: (1) by deepening the existing asymmetries between states on the international plane; (2) by modernising states’ and international organisations’ traditional practices; and (3) by reinforcing the contemporary calls for more evidence-based migration management and border security. The article examines each of these three hypotheses and reflects on the main challenges of using AI solutions for international migration management. It draws on legal, political and technology-facing academic literature, examining the current trends in technological developments and investigating the consequences that these can have for international migration. Most particularly, the article contributes to the current debate about the future of international migration management, informing policymakers in this area of growing importance and fast development.
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